According to the International Energy Agency (IEA), the buildings and construction sector accounted for 36% of final energy use and 39% of energy and process-related carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions in 2018. Almost 40% of CO2 emissions come from the building industry and space heating is the most important end-use in the residential sector (68% in Europe). The current energy transition towards low-carbon and renewable sources (with more electric uses, as heat pumps and electric vehicles) is expected to come from the aggregation of basic low voltage power supply grids, known as microgrids, which associate local energy production with storage capacities and energy consumers. Buildings equipped in such way are then expected to become ’Smart’ actors in terms of local energy management and service supply inside their walls but also outside (through exchanges with their neighborhood). In terms of energy, Smart buildings could actively dispatch their power generation, control storage capacities, and manage their energy demand. Indeed, efficiency could be gained through consumption reduction and self-consumption rate could increase through techniques such as load shifting to better match the demand with the renewable power generation. The role of the occupants, that is the consum’actors, could be key to achieve these goals. The service improvement thanks to Smart Buildings should be evaluated by cost-benefit analyses through performance indicators. These indicators can be of different nature : economic (for instance through the electrical bill change), environmental (the carbon footprint of the used electricity), related to services to the grid (such as load shedding during peak periods) or to well-being measures (such as user satisfaction, comfort or new user services). Data availability is key to be able to optimize for a given service, and this data can be of different types: weather forecasts, energy consumption, energy production, room temperature, the grid energy mix, to mention a few. To enable the development and test of new optimization solutions for Smart Buildings, the Energy4Climate center builds building-size demonstrators of different kinds (tertiary, residential, 100% electric, electric-thermic) and collects multi-parameter data that are available for the scientific and industrial communities.
BIO : After completing a PhD in atmospheric physics, Jordi Badosa joined the Dynamic Meteorology Laboratory (LMD) at the Ecole Polytechnique in 2010, where he developed photovoltaic forecasts for solar production storage management applications. Since 2019, he has been the technical director of the interdisciplinary Energy4Climate centre (https://www.e4c.ip-paris.fr/#/en/). His current research topics are solar energy forecasting, characterization and modelling of outdoor photovoltaics and local-scale energy management (mainly photovoltaics with storage). He conducts his research as part of interdisciplinary collaborations. Jordi Badosa has coordinated 5 demonstrator projects at the IP Paris Campus since 2015.