Direction des Relations et Internationales (DRI)
EQUIPE ASSOCIEE 
FORCES 
sélection

2008 
EquipeProjet INRIA : COMETE 
Organisme étranger partenaire : Pontificia
Universidad Javeriana Cali 
Centre de recherche INRIA : Futurs Thème INRIA : Systèmes Communicants 
Pays : Colombia 
Coordinateur
français

Coordinateur
étranger


Nom, prénom  Valencia, Frank D. 
Rueda, Camilo 
Grade/statut  CR2 (Permanent Researcher)  Full Professor 
Organisme d'appartenance 
CNRS  Pontificia Universidad Javeriana 
Adresse postale  LIX, École Polytechnique Rue de Saclay, 91128 Palaiseau FRANCE 
Dept. Ciencias e Ingeniería de la Computación. Calle 18 No. 118250 Cali, Colombia; A.A. No. 26239 
URL  http://www.lix.polytechnique.fr/~fvalenci/  http://cic.puj.edu.co/~crueda/camilo/ 
Téléphone  +33 1 6933 4144  +57 2 321 8397 
Télécopie  +33 1 6933 3014  +57 2 555 2823 
Courriel  frank.valencia@lix.polytechnique.fr  crueda@cic.puj.edu.co 
Titre de la thématique de collaboration
: FORCES (FORmalisms from Concurrency for Emergent Systems): Formalismes de la théorie des processus concurrents pour les systèmes émergents. 
Concurrent Constraint Programming (CCP) is a mature formalism from
Concurrency Theory which combines the traditional operational view of process
calculi with a declarative one of processes based upon logic. Some of the members of the teams in this proposal developed and have been using NTCC [NPV02], a
timed CCP calculus, to predict the behavior of several systems from emergent areas in computer science such as Security Protocols [LPP+06], Systems Biology [GPRV07] and Multimedia Semantic Interaction [RV05]. Although these areas differ significantly from
one another, there is a fundamental commonality in the nature of the analysis
one wants to achieve in them: Reachability, i.e., whether a system reaches
a state satisfying a particular property. We chose NTCC for these systems because it provides several reasoning tools such as a temporal lineartime logic, a proof system, verification techniques and a denotational semantics which are particularly useful for reachability analysis.
Despite the success of our applications of NTCC to the abovementioned areas, we have learned from our modeling experience and theoretical studies that NTCC is not sufficiently robust for them. For example, some security protocols use a mechanism to allow generation and communication of secrets. The NTCC calculus can at best express this mechanism indirectly [Val05]. Also, NTCC lacks probabilistic techniques. The modeling of the biological systems often requires to cope with uncertain and approximate information which can then be naturally represented using a probabilistic formalism. Furthermore, we have identified complex nonregular audio processing temporal behavior which cannot be expressed in NTCC.
In this collaboration we aim at providing more robust formalisms for analyzing
the emergent systems our teams have been modeling during recent years:
I.e., Security Protocols, Biological Systems and Multimedia Semantic Interaction.
Our research strategy is, with the benefit of hindsight, to develop them as
suitable extensions or specializations of NTCC. We believe that our expertise
in process calculi and CCP as well as our experience in modeling the abovementioned systems are fundamental for achieving this task.

1. Présentation du coordinateur étranger
Présentation de l'équipe française
Présentation de l'équipe étranger
The AVISPA team, active since 1995, is registered in the Colombian Science and Technology Agency (COLCIENCIAS). AVISPA research interests include the theoretical and practical aspects of using concurrent process calculi and concurrent constraint programming to model and solve problems in many areas of science, engineering and arts. AVISPA has been ranked as "A", the highest quality qualification given to research groups by COLCIENCIAS.
Before moving to Europe to pursue his PhD in computer science, Frank D. Valencia collaborated with Camilo Rueda in the design of constraint formalisms for concurrency. The most representative works arising from this early collaboration are the following: An extension of the picalculus with constraints [DRV98], the first of a family of process calculi integrating constraints and mobility, a process calculus for a visual objectoriented constraint programming language [RAQ+01], and two novel algorithms for constraint satisfaction problems later published as [RV04a]. Professor Rueda and Dr. Valencia have developed parallel interests in CCP and its applications to realworld scenarios. They have produced joint work on process calculi for modeling Biological Systems [GPRV07], Security Protocols [LPP+06], Audio Processing [RV04b] and Music Improvisation [RV04b]. This modeling experience is one of the main reasons that lead us to the present proposal.
Several AVISPA members participated and helped COMETE with the organization of the international LIX colloquium Emerging Trends in Concurrency Theory which gathered together world experts in some of the application subjects of this proposal.
Camilo Rueda has a long history of collaboration with Dr. Assayag on the domain of visual languages for music composition and on the use of constraints programming to solve combinatorial problems in music. In the 90's the group was a major actor in the development jointly with IRCAM, of the visual language PatchWork [AAFR94] and the constraint system Situation [AADR98, BR98]. In the late 90's and beginnings of 2000 the group collaborated with IRCAM in developing OpenMusic, a widely used visual music composition language based on Common Lisp [ARL+99].
[AADR98]  C. Agon, G. Assayag, O. Delerue, and C. Rueda. Objects, time, and constraints in openmusic. In ICMC 98, 1998. 
[AAFR94]  C. Agon, G. Assayag, J. Fineberg, and C. Rueda. Kant: a critique of pure quantification. In ICMC 94, 1994. 
[ARL^{+}99]  G. Assayag, C. Rueda, M. Laurson, C. Agon, and O. Delerue. Computerassisted composition at IRCAM: From Patchwork to OpenMusic. Comput. Music J., 23(3), 1999. 
[BR98]  A. Bonnet and C. Rueda. Situation: Un langage visuel basé sur les contraintes pour la composition musical. Recherches et applications en informatique musicale, 1998. 
[DRV98]  J. Diaz, C. Rueda, and F. Valencia. The pi+ calculus: A calculus for concurrent processes with constraints. CLEI Electronic Journal, 1(2), 1998. 
[GPRV07]  J. Gutiérrez, J. Pérez, C. Rueda, and F. Valencia. Timed concurrent constraint programming for analysing biological systems. Electron. Notes Theor. Comput. Sci., 171(2), 2007. 
[LPP^{+}06]  H. López, C. Palamidessi, J. Pérez, C. Rueda, and F. Valencia. A declarative framework for security: Secure concurrent constraint programming. In ICLP 2006. 2006. 
[RAQ^{+}01]  C. Rueda, G. Alvarez, L. Quesada, G. Tamura, F. Valencia, J. Diaz, and G. Assayag. Integrating constraints and concurrent objects in musical applications: A calculus and its visual language. Constraints, 6(1), 2001. 
[RV02]  C. Rueda and F. Valencia. Proving musical properties using a temporal concurrent constraint calculus. In ICMC 02, 2002. 
[RV04a]  C. Rueda and F. Valencia. Nonviability deductions in arcconsistency computation. In ICLP 2004. 2004. 
[RV04b]  C. Rueda and F. Valencia. On validity in modelization of musical problems by CCP. Soft Comput., 8(9), 2004. 
[RV05]  Camilo Rueda and Frank D. Valencia. A temporal concurrent constraint calculus as an audio processing framework. In SMC 05, 2005. 
No other collaboration between INRIA and La Pontificia Universidad Javeriana has taken place. To the best of our knowledge, if accepted, this will be the first of this kind of associations between INRIA and a Colombian research team.
3. Impact
The remarkable geographic distance and funds limitations for our existent collaboration has made it difficult for our teams to meet. Hitherto only the coordinators of each team have been able to visit the other team to present their work. If accepted, this association will allow the members of both teams gathered together thus giving us a unique opportunity to present and discuss ongoing and future work at internal workshops. We believe this would be beneficial for our joint work and, very importantly, highly motivating for our Ph.D students. We also believe this will attract students from the Colombian partner to pursue joint PhD studies in our group.
Furthermore this association will certainly foster the collaboration between AVISPA, COMETE and IRCAM in significant ways. The IRCAM project "interactive scores for music composition and performance" has already involved AVISPA for exploring the use of CCP as a formal model for the whole system. For this to scale to actual music performances our CCP model should have expressive temporal constructs, including realtime facilities. Moreover, an efficient realtime interpreter of this CCP calculus must be programmed and interfaced with the lisp based applications the composer will use. Similarly, the IRCAM project "OMax: from instrumental cloning to composed improvisation" could involve AVISPA and COMETE in using CCP to give formal grounds to the interactions taking place in music improvisation. The challenge in the near future is to model in CCP a process in which improvisation is based on a given score which is used as a general (but flexible) constraint. As the improvisation process advances it gradually departs in controlled ways, which can be previously determined by the composer, from this framework. Again, this is coupled with the need of realtime performance of a CCP interpreter.
Finally, the IRCAM project "Convergence of experimental and modeling approaches for musical analysis" can involve AVISPA and COMETE in developing a "computational musicology" based on formal CCP models of musical structures. The challenge here is to use the dual nature of CCP (logical and computational) to formally describe the musical properties of those structures and at the same time to provide a generator of musical material having them.
The INRIA Projectteam Contraintes, leaded by François Fages, investigates topics closely related to the ones in the present proposal. Namely, the foundations of concurrent constraint programming languages with applications to computational systems biology. In fact, Carlos Olarte and Frank D. Valencia from COMETE have met with the Constraintes team to discuss some aspects of the present research proposal and benefit form each other's experience. If this proposal is accepted, we will invite the group Constraintes to the workshop we will organize in Paris on topics of common interest.
We expect the association to have a major impact in enhancing the collaboration of the French team and AVISPA with the PUJ research group "automatics and robotics" (GAR) group. This group, thanks to a collaboration with Caltech in USA, has worked on constructing molecular biology models based on first principles. We would like to explore ways in which their "lower level" and our "higher level" models based on CCP could give clues to each other. In particular, how CCP bio models could be constrained to obey laws of interaction based on what is already known at the molecular level.
A different line of research of the GAR group is robotics, in particular the development of simulators for robot behavior. AVISPA and COMETE members have worked on using a CCP calculus, to model Lego robots behavior and to implement a real time controller [NV02, dPMH04]. The association will allow our groups to get involved in exploring ways to integrate the CCP formalism in more realistic models of autonomous robot interactions.
Background. CCP is a wellestablished process calculus for concurrency in which processes interact with each other by telling and asking information represented as logic formulae also known as constraints (e.g., x > 42). The NTCC formalism [NPV02] is a particular CCP process calculus for timedsystems. The applicability of the calculus has been illustrated with by modeling robotic devices, multiagent systems and applications in music and biology. Furthermore, the calculus is provided with a denotational semantics that captures the reactive computations of processes in the presence of arbitrary environments. Also, the calculus is provided with a process logic for expressing temporal specifications of NTCC processes as well as a complete inference system to prove that a given NTCC process satisfies a given formula in this logic.
Remarkably, most process calculi for security protocols have strong similarities with CCP. For instance, SPL [CW01], the Spi calculus variants in [ALV03, FA01], and the calculus in [BB01b] are all operationally defined in terms of configurations containing information which can only increase during evolution. Such a monotonic evolution of information is akin to the notion of monotonic store, which is central to CCP and a source of its simplicity. Also, the calculi in [ALV03,BC02, FA01] are parametric in the underlying logic much like CCP is parametric an underlying constraint system. Also, the assertion of (protocol) properties [ALV03] can be formalized as CCP processes imposing constraints.
We plan to give a CCP account of a representative calculus for security protocols. We will use CCP constraint systems to represent a logic to reason about the information an attacker can deduce from the information accumulated in the monotonic store. The CCP lineartime temporal logic and associated complete inference system in [NPV02] and the verification results in [Val05] can be used to specify and prove safety properties of protocol runs. Since most security protocols use mechanisms to allow generation of nonces (or names), we will provide CCP with such mechanisms.
It must be pointed out that there are several instances of the research in security protocols that have used tools and techniques from areas closely related to CCP. Namely, Constraint Programming (e.g. [BB01a] and [Mil95]) and Logic Programming (e.g. [CD99]) To our best knowledge there is no work on Security Protocols that takes advantage of the reasoning techniques of CCP.
Participants. Carlos Olarte, Catuscia Palamidessi, and Frank D. Valencia from COMETE, and Camilo Rueda and the student Gustavo Gutierrez from AVISPA.
The abovementioned "partialinformation" notions makes us believe that CCP has much to offer in the biological context. The notion of partial quantitative information is central to CCP via constraints. Partial behavioral information is actually the novelty of NTCC via nondeterministic and asynchronous operators. In fact, our teams have already explored these advantages in a preliminary study by given a model of a mechanism for cellular transport; SodiumPotassium pump.
Our plan is to exploit the abovementioned advantages of CCP for expressing partial information in the biological context, representing relevant biological phenomena as NTCC processes and their properties as formulae. We will study whether this partial information will be best represented in terms of spatial logic formulae which can describe structural information about biological elements. This would enable us to both simulate systems and verify their encodings using the NTCC calculus. Furthermore we shall include probabilistic elements in the calculus since uncertain and approximate information is typical in biological systems.
There are other approaches using CCP for Biological systems. In [ERJ+04] the CCPbased calculus hcc was used for the modeling of a regulation processes over genes. Also [BC02] uses hcc to model dynamic biological systems. Nevertheless, since hcc does not include operators for expressing partial behavioral information, a considerable amount of biological phenomena may not be modeled appropriately. In [Sar04] a linear CCP language, is proposed to model protein interaction. Unlike our approach, this works only focus on system simulations. Finally, BIOCHAM [CRFS04] is a programming environment for modeling biochemical systems developed by the INRIA Contraintes group which allows for simulations and querying the model in the temporal logic CTL. Since we are mainly interested in reachability properties of biological systems the underlying temporal logic of our approach is LTL rather than CTL. In fact, NTCC has been specially designed to have a strong connection with LTL to facilitate reachability analysis. Our proposed extension will also follow this design criteria.
Participants. Jesus Aranda, Romain Beauxis, Sylvain Pradalier, and Frank D. Valencia from COMETE, and Camilo Rueda and the student Henry Perez from AVISPA.
Process calculi model agent interaction in general in such a way that the richness of complex interactions that are usual in multimedia can be understood by building compositionally from the rigorous semantics of a few simple constructs. In order to add learning and narrative action features, concurrent constraints calculi are good candidates because they add the possibility of modeling declaratively through constraints complex restrictions on mutual interactions. NTCC provides a control over time and nondeterminism, thus opening the way to the generation of narrative sequences modeling innovative behavior that nevertheless keeps coherence with the past context of interaction as well as the current environment. In fact, preliminary experiments using NTCC on semantic music interaction feature a virtual musical improviser that learns from a human musician, models its style and play innovative improvisations that are stylistically consistent with the model [AS099,AD02, ADLB03, AD04]. However several theoretical and practical issues remain to be solved in order to cope with realistic application in multimedia interaction :
Our plan is to begin by pursuing observation of our model behavior in ever more complex interaction settings. E.g., a scenario where independent learners acquire knowledge from particular points of view of the observed behavior of a third agent. We will then find out to what extent constraints on information available in a given time unit can be used for this, or what extensions of NTCC are needed. We expect to advance the temporal CCP theory to deal with richer notions of time, at least for handling real time coupled with default behavior of "late", interruptible processes. A formalism for expressing properties associated with this extension will be defined. We will construct a framework for the above, including an interpreter of the calculus able to run in real time.
To the best of our knowledge, apart from our work mentioned above, no other attempts have been made to use CCP for multimedia semantic interaction.
Participants. Frank D. Valencia from COMETE, Camilo Rueda and the student Mauricio Toro from AVISPA, and Gerard Assayag from IRCAM.
In the long term, we also plan to have a PhD student in cosupervision with Camilo Rueda to investigate (ii) above for the area of Multimedia Semantic Interaction.
1. Cofinancement
This project proposal is intended to be a PUJ (Pontificia Universidad Javeriana)  INRIA collaborative venture.AVISPA holds a grant from the Colombian Science and Technology Agency (COLCIENCIAS) via the research project REACT to do research in the abovementioned areas. These funds will be used for one trip to Colombia for Gerard Assayag, two trips to Paris for Camilo Rueda and a trip to Paris for the AVISPA students: Gustavo Gutierrez, Henry Perez and Mauricio Toro. We assume each trip to Paris costs 2,200€ (1,200€ for the flight + 1000€ for accommodation and meals) and that the trip to Colombia costs 1,500€ (1,200€ for the flight + 300€ for accommodation and meals). This gives us a total estimate of 12,500€
ESTIMATION PROSPECTIVE DES COFINANCEMENTS  
Organisme

Montant

AVISPA existing funds from COLCIENCIAS  12,500€ 
Total

12,500€ 
2. Echanges
ESTIMATION DES DÉPENSES 
Montant


Nombre

Accueil

Missions

Total


Chercheurs confirmés  1  2x1,500€ (two trips to Colombia for French Coordinator)  3,000€  
Postdoctorants 

Doctorants  4  2x4x1,500€ (two trips each to Colombia)  2x1,500€(two European conferences) + 1x2,000€ (one North or Latin American conference)  17,000€ 
Stagiaires 

Autre (précisez): Trips funded by the Colombian Team 
5 x 2,200€ (five trips to Paris) + 1x1,500€(one trip to Colombia)  12,500€  
Total

32,500€  
 total des
cofinancements

12,500€  
Financement "Équipe
Associée" demandé

20,000€ 
[AADR98]  C. Agon, G. Assayag, O. Delerue, and C. Rueda. Objects, time, and constraints in openmusic. In ICMC 98, 1998. 
[AAFR94]  C. Agon, G. Assayag, J. Fineberg, and C. Rueda. Kant: a critique of pure quantification. In ICMC 94, 1994. 
[AD02]  G. Assayag and S. Dubnov. Universal prediction applied to stylistic music generation. In Mathematic and Music, EMS Diderot Forum, 2002. 
[AD04]  G. Assayag and S. Dubnov. Using factor oracles for machine improvisation. Soft Comput., 8(9), 2004. 
[ADLB03]  G. Assayag, S. Dubnov, O. Lartillot, and G. Bejerano. Using machinelearning methods for musical style modeling. IEEE Computers, 36(10), 2003. 
[ADR06]  G. Assayag, S. Dubnov, and C. Rueda. A concurrent constraints factor oracle model for music improvisation. In CLEI 06, 2008. 
[ALV03]  R. Amadio, D. Lugiez, and V. Vanackère. On the symbolic reduction of processes with cryptographic functions. Theor. Comput. Sci., 290(1), 2003. 
[ARL^{+}99]  G. Assayag, C. Rueda, M. Laurson, C. Agon, and O. Delerue. Computerassisted composition at IRCAM: From Patchwork to OpenMusic. Comput. Music J., 23(3), 1999. 
[ASO99]  C. Agon, S.Dubnov, and O.Delerue. Guessing the composer's mind : Applying universal prediction to musical style. In ICMC 99, 1999. 
[BB01a]  G. Bella and S. Bistarelli. Soft constraints for security protocol analysis: Confidentiality. In PADL 01, 2001. 
[BB01b]  M. Boreale and M. Buscemi. A framework for the analysis ofsecurity protocols. In WSDAAL, 2001. 
[BC02]  A. Bockmayr and A. Courtois. Using hybrid concurrent constraint programming to model dynamic biological systems. In ICLP 02, 2002. 
[BR98]  A. Bonnet and C. Rueda. Situation: Un langage visuel basé sur les contraintes pour la composition musical. Recherches et applications en informatique musicale, 1998. 
[CD99]  K. Compton and S. Dexter. Proof techniques for cryptographic protocols. In ICAL 99, 1999. 
[CRFS04]  Nathalie ChabrierRivier, François Fages, and Sylvain Soliman. The biochemical abstract machine biocham. In CMSB, pages 172191, 2004. 
[CW01]  F. Crazzolara and G. Winskel. Events in security protocols. In CCS 01, 2001. 
[DL03]  V. Danos and C. Laneve. Graphs for core molecular biology. In CMSB 03, 2003. 
[dPMH04]  María del Pilar Muñoz and Andrés René Hurtado. Programming robotic devices with a timed concurrent constraint language. In CP, page 803, 2004. 
[DRV98]  J. Diaz, C. Rueda, and F. Valencia. The pi+ calculus: A calculus for concurrent processes with constraints. CLEI Electronic Journal, 1(2), 1998. 
[ERJ^{+}04]  D. Eveillard, D. Ropers, H. Jong, C. Branlant, and A. Bockmayr. A multiscale constraint programming model of alternative splicing regulation. Theor. Comput. Sci., 325(1), 2004. 
[FA01]  M. Fiore and M. Abadi. Computing symbolic models for verifying cryptographic protocols. In CSFW 01, 2001. 
[GPRV07]  J. Gutiérrez, J. Pérez, C. Rueda, and F. Valencia. Timed concurrent constraint programming for analysing biological systems. Electron. Notes Theor. Comput. Sci., 171(2), 2007. 
[LPP^{+}06]  H. López, C. Palamidessi, J. Pérez, C. Rueda, and F. Valencia. A declarative framework for security: Secure concurrent constraint programming. In ICLP 2006. 2006. 
[Mil95]  J. K. Millen. The interrogator model. In SP 95, 1995. 
[NPV02]  M. Nielsen, C. Palamidessi, and F. Valencia. Temporal concurrent constraint programming: Denotation, logic and applications. Nordic Journal of Computing, 9(1), 2002. 
[NV02]  Mogens Nielsen and Frank D. Valencia. Temporal concurrent constraint programming: Applications and behavior. In Formal and Natural Computing, pages 298324, 2002. 
[RAQ^{+}01]  C. Rueda, G. Alvarez, L. Quesada, G. Tamura, F. Valencia, J. Diaz, and G. Assayag. Integrating constraints and concurrent objects in musical applications: A calculus and its visual language. Constraints, 6(1), 2001. 
[RV02]  C. Rueda and F. Valencia. Proving musical properties using a temporal concurrent constraint calculus. In ICMC 02, 2002. 
[RV04a]  C. Rueda and F. Valencia. Nonviability deductions in arcconsistency computation. In ICLP 2004. 2004. 
[RV04b]  C. Rueda and F. Valencia. On validity in modelization of musical problems by CCP. Soft Comput., 8(9), 2004. 
[Sar04]  V. Saraswat. Euler: an applied lcc language for graph rewriting. Technical report, Technical report, IBM TJ Watson Research Center, 2004. 
[Val05]  F. Valencia. Decidability of infinitestate timed CCP process and firstorder LTL. Theoretical Computer Science, 330(3), 2005. 