# ∂IFFERENCE

## Complexity theory with discrete ODEs Théorie de la complexité avec des équations différentielles discrètes

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authors (basic)

PmWiki has two types of table markup; the markup described in this page is useful for creating simple tables with lots of small cells, while table directive markup helps with larger scale or more complex tables. For more possibilities with formatting simple tables, see Cookbook:Rowspan in simple tables and Cookbook:Formatting tables.

## Table basics

Simple tables are created via use of double pipe characters: `||`. Lines beginning with this markup denote rows in a table or a formatting line. Within table row lines the double-pipe is used to delimit cells. In the examples below a border is added for illustration (the default is no border).

The first line in the markup contains formatting commands for the table. It only has double pipe characters at the start of the line.

Basic table
```|| border=1
|| cell 1 || cell 2 || cell 3 ||
|| cell 1 || cell 2 ||
```
 cell 1 cell 2 cell 3 cell 1 cell 2

Header cells can be created by placing ! as the first character of a cell. Note that these are table headers, not headings, so it doesn't extend to !!, !!!, etc.

```|| border=1
||! cell 1 ||! cell 2 ||! cell 3 ||
|| cell 1  ||  cell 2 ||  cell 3 ||
```
cell 1cell 2cell 3
cell 1cell 2cell 3

A table can have a caption, indicated by `||!caption!||`. Any caption must appear prior to other rows of the table.

Table caption
```|| border=1
||! A special table !||
||! cell 1 ||! cell 2 ||! cell 3 ||
|| cell 1  ||  cell 2 ||  cell 3 ||
```
A special table
cell 1cell 2cell 3
cell 1cell 2cell 3

## Formatting cell contents

Cell contents may be aligned left, centered, or aligned right.

• To left-align contents, place the cell contents next to the leading `||`.
• To center contents, add a space before and after the cell contents.
• To right-align contents, place a space before the cell contents and leave the cell contents next to the trailing `||`.
Cell alignments
```|| border=1 width=100%
||!cell 1      ||! cell 2  ||!       cell 3||
||left-aligned || centered || right-aligned||
```
cell 1cell 2cell 3
left-alignedcenteredright-aligned
Default cell alignments
```|| border=1 width=100%
||!cell default||!cell left ||
||default-aligned||left-aligned ||
```
cell defaultcell left
default-alignedleft-aligned

Note that header and detail cells have different default alignments.

To get a cell to span multiple columns, follow the cell with empty cells. (At present there is no markup for spanning rows.)

Column spanning
```|| border=1 width=100%
|| |||| right column ||
|| || right two columns ||||
|| || middle column || ||
|| left column || ||||
|| left two columns |||| ||
|| entire row ||||||
|| left column || middle column || right column ||
```
 right column right two columns middle column left column left two columns entire row left column middle column right column

## Table attributes

Any line that begins with `||` but doesn't have a closing `||` sets the table attributes for any tables that follow. These attributes can control the size and position of the table, borders, background color, and cell spacing. (In fact these are just standard HTML attributes that are placed in the <table> tag.)

Use the `width=` attribute to set a table's width, using either a percentage value, an absolute size, or *.

Table width
```|| border=1 width=100%
|| cell 1 || cell 2 || cell 3 ||
|| c1 || cellcellcellcell2 || cell 3 ||
```
 cell 1 cell 2 cell 3 c1 cellcellcellcell2 cell 3

The `border=` attribute sets the size of a table's borders.

Bordered table
```|| border=10 width=70%
||!cell 1      ||! cell 2  ||!       cell 3||
||left-aligned || centered || right-aligned||
```
cell 1cell 2cell 3
left-alignedcenteredright-aligned
Borderless table
```|| border=0 width=70%
||!cell 1      ||! cell 2  ||!       cell 3||
||left-aligned || centered || right-aligned||
```
cell 1cell 2cell 3
left-alignedcenteredright-aligned

Use `align=center`, `align=left`, and `align=right` to center, left, or right align a table. Note that `align=left` and `align=right` create a floating table, such that text wraps around the table.

Table alignment: center
```|| border=1 align=center width=50%
||!cell 1      ||! cell 2  ||!       cell 3||
||left-aligned || centered || right-aligned||
Notice how text does not wrap with a table using "align=center".
```
cell 1cell 2cell 3
left-alignedcenteredright-aligned

Notice how text does not wrap with a table using "align=center".

Table alignment: left
```|| border=1 align=left width=50%
||!cell 1      ||! cell 2  ||!       cell 3||
||left-aligned || centered || right-aligned||
Notice how text wraps to the right of a table using "align=left".
```
cell 1cell 2cell 3
left-alignedcenteredright-aligned

Notice how text wraps to the right of a table using "align=left".

Table alignment: right
```|| border=1 align=right width=50%
||!cell 1      ||! cell 2  ||!       cell 3||
||left-aligned || centered || right-aligned||
Notice how text wraps to the left of a table using "align=right".
```
cell 1cell 2cell 3
left-alignedcenteredright-aligned

Notice how text wraps to the left of a table using "align=right".

Note: to get a table to align left (but not "float left") requires CSS, as in

`||style="margin-left:0px;"`

The `bgcolor=` attribute sets the background color for a table. At present there is no way to specify the color of individual rows or cells in this type of table (but see Cookbook:FormattingTables).

```|| border=1 align=center bgcolor=yellow width=70%
||!cell 1    ||! cell 2 ||!     cell 3||
||left-align || center  || right-align||
```
cell 1cell 2cell 3
left-aligncenterright-align

## Sortable tables

To allow readers to reorder a table, give it the class="sortable" attribute:

```|| class="sortable simpletable"
||!   m||!Geographic zone     ||!Highest point     ||!Country  ||
|| 3700||Arctic               ||Gunnbjørn Fjeld    ||Greenland ||
|| 8848||North Temperate Zone ||Mount Everest      ||Nepal     ||
|| 5790||North Tropical Zone  ||Cayambe            ||Ecuador   ||
|| 6768||South Tropical Zone  ||Huáscarán          ||Peru      ||
|| 6960||South Temperate Zone ||Aconcagua          ||Argentina ||
|| 4892||Antarctic            ||Mount Vinson       ||(none)    ||
```
mGeographic zoneHighest pointCountry
3700ArcticGunnbjørn FjeldGreenland
8848North Temperate ZoneMount EverestNepal
6768South Tropical ZoneHuáscaránPeru
6960South Temperate ZoneAconcaguaArgentina
4892AntarcticMount Vinson(none)

Note: this feature has to be enabled in local configuration, see `\$EnableSortable`.

## FAQ

How do I create a basic table?

Tables are created via use of the double pipe character: `||`. Lines beginning with this markup denote rows in a table; within such lines the double-pipe is used to delimit cells. In the examples below a border is added for illustration (the default is no border).

Basic table
```|| border=1 rules=rows frame=hsides
|| cell 1 || cell 2 || cell 3 ||
|| cell 1 || cell 2 || cell 3 ||
```
 cell 1 cell 2 cell 3 cell 1 cell 2 cell 3

How do I create cell headers?

Header cells can be created by placing ! as the first character of a cell. Note that these are table headers, not headings, so it doesn't extend to !!, !!!, etc.

```|| border=1 rules=cols frame=vsides
||! cell 1 ||! cell 2 ||! cell 3 ||
|| cell 1  ||  cell 2 ||  cell 3 ||
```
cell 1cell 2cell 3
cell 1cell 2cell 3

How do I obtain a table with thin lines and more distance to the content?

"Thin lines" is tricky and browser dependent, but the following works for Firefox and IE (Nov. 2009):

```||border="1" style="border-collapse:collapse" cellpadding="5" width=66%
||        ||         ||             ||
```

How do I create an advanced table?

My tables are by default centered. When I try to use '||align=left' they don't align left as expected.

How can I specify the width of columns?

You can define the widths via custom styles, see Cookbook:FormattingTables and `\$TableCellAttrFmt`. Add in config.php : `\$TableCellAttrFmt = 'class=col\$TableCellCount';`

```table.column td.col1 { width: 120px; }
table.column td.col3 { width: 40px; }
```

How can I display a double pipe "||" in cell text using basic table markup?

Escape it with `[=||=]` to display || unchanged.

How do I apply styles to the elements of the table, like an ID to the table row, or a class/style to the TD?

See \$WikiStyleApply.

Alternately, use table directives, which allow specifying styling either directly (style="...") or by a class="..." attribute for CSS.